Ideas in Writing Task 2 can be a major deterrent in IELTS. Ideas have been complied below and can be very helpful.
- Gases such as carbon dioxide trap heat from the sun.
- This causes global temperatures to rise.
- This process is known as the greenhouse effect.
- Human activity is a major factor in the rise of the greenhouse gases.
- Factories and vehicles produce emissions and exhaust fumes.
- Many developing countries are becoming industrialised.
- The number of cars on our streets is growing.
- Cheap air travel is allowing more people to fly.
Effects of Global Warming
- Global warming will have a significant impact on our planet.
- Rising temperatures will cause melting of the polar ice caps.
- Sea levels will rise.
- We can expect more extreme weather conditions.
- Flooding and droughts may become more common.
Impact of Humans on the Environment
- The increasing world population is putting pressure on natural resources.
- Fossil fuels like oil and gas are running out.
- We are destroying wildlife habitats.
- We have cut down enormous areas of rainforest.
- This has led to the extinction of many species of animals and plants.
Solutions to Environment Problems
- Governments could introduce laws to limit emissions from factories.
- They should invest in renewable energy from solar, wind or water power.
- They could impose “green taxes” on drivers and airline companies.
- Government campaigns should promote recycling.
- Natural areas and wild animals should be protected.
- Individuals should also try to be greener.
- We should take fewer flights abroad for holidays.
- We should take public transport rather than driving.
- We should choose products with less packaging.
- We should recycle as much as possible.
Waste / Rubbish
- The amount of waste we produce has increased.
- This problem is a result of our consumer culture.
- Products are not made to last.
- If something breaks, we throw it away and buy a new one.
- Advertisers encourage us to buy the newest fashions.
- Packaging is an important part of selling.
- Most foods are sold in non-biodegradable plastic packaging.
- The amount of household waste is growing.
- This waste ends up in landfill sites.
- People do not think about the consequences of dropping rubbish.
- They assume that somebody is paid to clean the streets.
- Plastic packaging does not break down easily.
- Most of the litter seen on streets is fast food packaging.
Recycling and Other Solutions
- Companies should make goods that last longer.
- They should not use so much packaging.
- Governments should be stricter about waste produced by companies.
- They should put legal limits on packaging.
- Consumers should avoid buying over-packaged products.
- We should recycle and reuse useful materials.
- There are collection banks for glass, paper and plastic bottles.
- Households can use several rubbish bins to separate waste.
- Recycling saves energy and raw materials.
Nuclear Power: Positives
- There are several benefits to building more nuclear power stations.
- Fossil fuels like oil and gas are running out.
- Nuclear power is a relatively sustainable energy source.
- It can be used to produce electricity without wasting natural resources.
- It could replace the use of natural resources like coal, oil or gas.
- Nuclear power stations are cleaner than fossil fuel power stations.
- They could help to reduce carbon emissions that cause global warming.
- The risks of accidents are being reduced.
Nuclear Power: Negatives
- Opponents of nuclear power worry about the safety of power stations.
- The building of new nuclear power stations is unpopular.
- Nobody wants to live near one.
- Nuclear waste disposal is a significant problem.
- There is currently no way to decontaminate radioactive material.
- People worry that terrorists could steal radioactive materials.
- It is safer to produce energy from solar, wind or water power.
- Families in many countries are not as large as they used to be.
- We tend to live in small nuclear families rather than large extended families.
- Parents tend to have fewer children.
- Young children are no longer expected to work.
- Nowadays both parents often work.
- It costs so much to bring children up.
- It is more difficult to raise a large family.
Working Parents (also see “Gender” topic)
- Children and their parents seem to be less close nowadays.
- Parents spend less time with their children.
- Women traditionally stayed at home to cook, clean and look after children.
- Nowadays both parents often work full time.
- Children may be left alone, or with nannies or babysitters.
- Busy parents have less contact with their children.
- Many families no longer eat meals together.
- Children spend more time with friends or surfing the Internet.
Negative Effects on Children
- The lack of closeness in families can have a negative effect on children.
- Many parents have no idea how their children spend their time.
- Friends, television and the Internet become the main influences on children’s behaviour.
- Teenagers are influenced by peer pressure.
- Some of them join gangs.
- Juvenile delinquency is on the increase.
- Parents should be more involved with their children’s upbringing.
- Young people need positive role models.
- In the past, divorce was unacceptable.
- It was considered to be embarrassing for a family.
- People stayed together for religious or family reasons.
- Divorce is more socially acceptable nowadays.
- It has become much more common.
- Divorce can be extremely stressful.
- Lone parents may face financial difficulties.
- Many single parents have to rely on benefits paid by the state.
- Divorce can have a negative effect on children.
- Children from single-parent families are more likely to get lower grades or drop out of school.
- The rise in divorce rates may be connected to some social problems.
Care for Old People
- Caring for elderly people was traditionally the responsibility of families.
- Adults had to look after their elderly parents.
- A woman’s job was to stay at home taking care of her family.
- Nowadays, fewer elderly people are looked after by their relatives.
- Residential homes provide care for large numbers of elderly people.
- Some families are unable to look after elderly relatives.
- Families tend to be smaller these days, and women often have full-time jobs.
- Care homes provide a professional service for senior citizens.
- Nurses are better trained than family members.
Care for Old People: Opinion
- The best form of care for the elderly depends on the family situation.
- It depends on whether family members have the time and resources.
- We all have a responsibility towards the older people in our society.
- Governments should invest money in facilities and training for care workers
8. Gender (Males and Females)
Gender and Education
- Men and women should have access to the same educational opportunities.
- Males and females should be accepted onto courses according to their abilities.
- It is wrong to discriminate against students because of their gender.
- Gender should be irrelevant in education.
- Students’ achievements should depend on hard work and individual merit.
- In the UK, there are similar numbers of male and female students in higher education.
Gender and Work
- Men and women should have access to the same professional opportunities.
- Both men and women should be able to pursue a career.
- They should earn equal salaries.
- They should be employed according to their abilities, qualifications and experience.
- Traditionally, women have been restricted to certain roles.
- They were often employed as secretaries or receptionists.
- Nowadays, a range of occupations is available to both sexes.
- Career success depends on individual merit.
Women’s and Men’s Role in the Family
- Some people argue that a mother should not work.
- She should stay at home and bring up her children.
- The father should be the breadwinner of the family.
- Others believe that both parents should share these responsibilities.
- Working women can take maternity leave during and after pregnancy.
- Many mothers continue to work after this period.
- Many fathers and mothers share their parenting and domestic responsibilities.
- They contribute equally to childcare, cooking and cleaning.
- Some women may have better career prospects than their husbands
- Paternity leave and “househusbands” are becoming more common.
- Traditional gender roles are gradually changing.
- Families can divide roles and responsibilities in the most convenient way.
9. Genetic Engineering
Positives of Genetic Engineering
- Genetic engineering is the practice of manipulating the genes of an organism.
- It is used to produce crops that are more resistant to insects and diseases.
- Some genetically modified crops grow more quickly.
- Some drugs and vaccines are produced by genetic engineering.
- It may become possible to change humans’ genetic characteristics.
- Scientists may use genetic engineering to cure diseases.
- Inherited illnesses would no longer exist.
- Genes could be changed before a baby is born.
- It could also be possible to clone human organs.
- We could all have replacement body parts.
- Humans could live longer, healthier lives.
Negatives of Genetic Engineering
- There are ethical concerns about human genetic engineering.
- Parents might want to choose their children’s characteristics.
- This would be unnatural.
- It would be unacceptable in most religions.
- Soldiers could be cloned from the genes of the strongest people.
- Clones might be used like robots to do certain jobs.
- Clones might even be developed just for organ replacements.
- Society and human evolution would change completely.
- Currently, human genetic engineering is prohibited.
Genetically-Modified (GM) Foods: Advantages
- Farmers can produce crops that grow bigger and faster.
- Some GM crops are more resistant to disease or insects.
- This could be important for food production in developing countries.
- Faster growing cereals, fruit and vegetables will mean more profit.
- GM foods can be modified to look perfect.
- They may be more attractive to customers.
Genetically-Modified (GM) Foods: Disadvantages
- There may be risks involved in the genetic engineering of foods.
- GM crops might change whole ecosystems.
- Food chains could be broken if crops are resistant to predators.
- Organic foods are produced without chemicals or genetic modification.
- Organic farming may be slower and more expensive.
- However, the environment is not damaged by fertilisers or pesticides.
10. Global Issues
Problems in Developing Countries
- Developing countries face a range of problems.
- Standards of healthcare and education are low.
- Life expectancy is usually lower than in developed countries.
- There is a lack of infrastructure, employment and good quality housing.
- Many people are forced to live in poverty.
- Food, drinking water and basic medicines are in short supply.
How to Help Developing Countries
- The best form of help for developing countries is development aid.
- Richer nations can help by investing in long-term projects.
- Governments and charities can help by building new houses and schools.
- Globalisation may also help developing countries.
- Multi-national companies are creating jobs in developing countries.
- On the other hand, many people emigrate to find work in richer countries.
- They often send money back home to their families.
- This money helps to improve the standard of living in developing countries.
- Some people move to another country in search of a better life.
- Many immigrants come from less developed countries.
- Richer, industrialised countries may offer opportunities for employment.
- Free healthcare and schooling are available in some developed countries.
- Other people migrate to a foreign country to improve their academic qualifications.
Positives of Immigration and Multi-Cultural Societies
- From an economic perspective, immigration can be extremely positive.
- Many immigrants have skills that are needed in the country they move to.
- Immigrants who find work contribute to the economy of their new country.
- Many immigrants send money home to help family members.
- Immigration also creates cultural diversity.
- People of many different nationalities learn to live together.
- This can help people to become more open-minded and tolerant.
Negatives of Immigration
- Some people believe that immigrants take jobs that should go to local people.
- Some immigrant workers work longer hours for less money.
- Companies might pay lower salaries to immigrant workers.
- Unemployment rates could rise if there are too many immigrants.
Opinions about Immigration
- Immigration can help the economy of a country.
- It can create multi-cultural societies.
- However, immigration needs to be controlled.
- In many countries, immigrants need visas or work permits.
- Governments should stop companies from exploiting immigrant workers.
- Foreign and local workers should have the right to equal pay and conditions.
Positives of Globalisation
- Business is becoming increasingly international.
- Multi-national companies do business across the world.
- Companies like MacDonald’s can be seen on high streets in most cities.
- Goods are produced in one country and sold in many others.
- A global economy means free trade between countries.
- This can strengthen political relationships.
- Globalisation can also create opportunities for employment.
- It encourages investment in less developed countries.
- It could reduce poverty in the developing world.
Negatives of Globalisation
- Globalisation is not always beneficial to everyone.
- Companies can move to countries where labour is cheap.
- This creates redundancies, or job losses.
- Employees cannot be confident that they have stable jobs.
- Companies sometimes exploit their employees in developing countries.
- Global trade creates more waste and pollution.
The Future of Globalisation
- There should be global regulations for salaries and working conditions.
- Governments should impose laws to protect the environment.