Skip to content
Money and Society
- Society has become increasingly materialistic.
- People aspire to earn more money.
- They want a bigger house or a better car.
- We connect wealth and material possessions with happiness and success.
- Brands like ‘Armani’ or ‘Mercedes’ are status symbols.
- Advertising creates new desires and needs.
- It persuades us to buy the latest styles.
Positives of Consumerism
- Consumerism creates employment.
- It helps to reduce poverty.
- It encourages innovation and creativity in business.
- We live in a global economy.
- We have a better quality of life.
Negatives of Consumerism
- Consumerist societies create more waste.
- They use more natural resources.
- They cause damage to the environment.
- Consumerism creates a “throw-away” culture.
- Advertisers tell us who we are and what we want.
- Wealth does not lead to happiness.
- Materialism causes greed and crime.
- We should return to traditional values like sharing.
- Happiness means different things to different people.
- It can be described as a feeling of pleasure or enjoyment.
- People enjoy spending time with family and friends.
- Hobbies, sports and games can be a source of fun and enjoyment.
- Some people see money as a source of happiness.
- Other people define happiness as something deeper.
- In order to be truly happy it is necessary to live a good life.
- We need to feel that we are doing something useful with our lives.
- Some people get a sense of achievement from their work.
- Others find happiness in bringing up their children.
- Religion or a sense of purpose can also be a source of happiness.
- People define success in different ways.
- Some people get a sense of achievement from raising a family.
- For others, success is defined by wealth or status.
- We often think of rich and famous people as being successful in life.
- Millionaires like Bill Gates are considered to be successful.
- They have risen to the top in their chosen professions.
- For some, being successful means achieving personal or professional goals.
- They see success as the result of hard work.
- Success in any field requires long-term planning and effort.
Nature or Nurture
- Some people believe that our personalities are determined mainly by genetics.
- We inherit our abilities and talents from our parents.
- Others think that our education and upbringing are more important.
- · We develop according to the influences around us.
- Our personalities and achievements depend more on nurture than nature.
- Many people argue that we control our own destinies.
- We can shape our own personalities.
- By working hard we can achieve any goal that we put our minds to.
- Many successful people are “self-made”.
- We are not limited by our genetic characteristics or upbringing.
18.Sport and Leisure
Arguments against Professional / Competitive Sport
- Sport has become a business.
- Professional sport encourages people to compete for money.
- Many sports stars are only concerned about money and fame.
- Some athletes take drugs in order to win at any cost.
- Competitors are often selfish and rude.
- They are not good role models for children.
- All sports should be amateur.
- Sports should be leisure activities rather than jobs.
- People should do sporting activities for enjoyment and health reasons.
- Taking part is more important than winning.
Arguments for Professional Sport
- Professional sports are the same as any other business.
- Many people are employed in the sports industry.
- People should be able to use their talents to earn a salary.
- Sports stars entertain millions of people.
- Money is necessary to improve facilities and train athletes.
- The level of professional sport is much higher than that of amateur sport.
Arguments for Competitive Sport
- Competition is a natural instinct in humans.
- In daily life we compete to get jobs or the highest grades.
- Sports are a safe form of competition.
- Competition is healthy because it pushes us to give our best.
- Competitors and fans can release energy and aggression.
- Supporters of teams feel a sense of belonging to a community.
Opinion: professional sport salaries are too high
- Sports professionals earn too much money.
- They do not provide a vital service.
- Football players, for example, earn enormous salaries by simply kicking a ball.
- We could all live happily without professional football.
- Life would be difficult without doctors, engineers and other vital professionals.
- Society does not seem to value these professions as highly as professional sport.
- Sports salaries should be compatible with the wages most people earn.
Opinion: professional sport salaries are fair
- It is fair that the best professionals earn a lot of money.
- Sport is a multi-million-pound industry.
- There is a large audience of sports fans.
- Sports on television attract many viewers.
- Sports stars have dedicated hours of practice to developing their fitness and skills.
- Only the most talented among them will reach the top.
- A sports career may only last 10 years.
- Sports fans are willing to pay to support their teams.
Sport and Politics
- Some people think that sport and politics should remain separate.
- Governments are involved in the hosting of sporting events such as the Olympics.
- These events attract investment and create jobs.
- The Olympic Games are an advertisement for the host nation.
- They attract huge numbers of visitors and sports fans.
- Wealthy countries tend to hold these events.
- Developing countries should be given the chance to become hosts.
19.Television, Internet, Phones
Positives of Television
- Watching television is a good way to relax.
- It is many people’s favourite way to wind down after a hard day at work.
- Television programmes can be entertaining and enjoyable.
- Viewers have access to a huge variety of entertainment channels.
- Television brings the best comedians, musicians and actors into our homes.
- Programmes can also be informative and educational.
- News coverage makes the public aware of events around the world.
- Documentaries can make learning more interesting.
Negatives of Television
- Television is having a negative impact on society.
- Some people link violence on television with crime rates in the real world.
- Children copy the behaviour they see on the screen.
- Children are less healthy because they spend less time playing.
- Advertisers direct their marketing at children.
- Most programmes do not require much thought.
- Watching TV is a waste of time.
Opinions about Television
- Television has many benefits.
- However, it can be addictive.
- · Children should play outside rather than sit in front of a screen all day.
- Behaviour shown on TV can influence people.
- Parents should choose carefully what their children watch.
- Children should not be exposed to violence, swearing or sexual images.
- Advertising during children’s programmes should be strictly controlled.
- TV companies should make more positive, educational programmes.
Positives of the Internet
- There are many advantages to using the Internet.
- It gives us instant access to information on almost any subject.
- Shops and other services are now available online.
- People can buy goods and services from the comfort of their homes.
- The Internet is starting to replace other forms of entertainment.
- It has revolutionised communication.
- We can keep in touch by e-mail or instant messenger services.
- Video messaging is becoming common for business meetings.
Negatives of the Internet
- Many websites contain offensive content.
- Some sites show violent or sexual images.
- Parents find it difficult to control what their children see online.
- They do not always know who their children are chatting to.
- With so many websites it is difficult to search for good information.
- Criminals increasingly use the Internet to steal people’s money.
Internet Compared to Newspapers and Books
- Newspapers and books are now published online as well as in print.
- We can read the news in any language from any country in the world.
- It costs nothing to publish or access information on the Internet.
- The Internet allows anybody to publish their own writing.
- Newspaper articles and books are written by professionals.
- Professionals produce better quality writing than amateurs.
- People still buy newspapers and books because they are portable.
- People do not like reading from a screen.
Positives of Mobile Phones
- The mobile phone is the most popular gadget in today’s world.
- Mobile phones have revolutionised the way we communicate.
- We can stay in touch with family, friends and colleagues wherever we are.
- Users can send text messages, surf the Internet, take photos and listen to music.
- Mobiles have also become fashion accessories.
Negatives of Mobile Phones
- Mobile phones can be a problem in some public places.
- Ringing phones cause disturbances in cinemas and school lessons.
- Some people are not aware that others can hear their conversations.
- Mobile phones may also interfere with electronic equipment.
- Their waves could cause damage to our brains.
- Mobile phones can also be a dangerous distraction.
- Using a phone while driving reduces the driver’s concentration.
- Mobile phones are a popular target for thieves.
Opinion about Mobile Phones
- The benefits of mobile phones outweigh the drawbacks.
- We need to use these phones with care.
Positives of Tourism
- Tourism is a popular leisure activity.
- People go on holiday to relax and have fun.
- Tourists can experience different cultures.
- They can sunbathe on beaches or go sight-seeing.
- Travelling abroad opens our minds.
- We can learn to speak other languages.
- The tourist trade is vital for some economies.
- It creates employment in services like accommodation, transport and entertainment.
- Some areas rely on tourism for their income.
- Tourists spend money.
- Tourism attracts investment from multi-national companies.
- It helps to improve the standard of living.
- Low-cost airlines are making it cheaper to travel abroad.
Negative Effects of Tourism
- Tourism can have a negative effect on the natural environment.
- The building of facilities and infrastructure can destroy the habitat of wild animals.
- Beautiful beaches are spoilt by the building of hotels.
- Tourism creates pollution and waste.
- It puts pressure on local resources.
- Local traditions and cultures may be endangered.
- A rise in the cost of living affects local people.
- The price of goods, services and housing may increase significantly.
The Future of Tourism
- Governments should introduce laws to protect natural environments and local cultures.
- Tourism should have a low impact on wildlife.
- Renewable resources like solar or water power should be used.
- Waste should be recycled.
- Local businesses such as farms should be supported.